Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are broadly used as raw materials in the manufacture of chemical materials. Many PAAs have either a proven or suspected carcinogenic nature and are rated as highly toxic, so there are a range of potential health risks, which have led to worldwide regulations. Despite the toxic and carcinogenic nature of PAAs, they are an important feedstock used in the production of many commodity products such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, explosives, epoxy polymers, rubber, aromatic polyurethane products, and azo dyes.
While not desirable in final products, the presence of PAAs may be due to incomplete reactions, impurities, by-products, or as degradation products. For example, PAAs can be produced as by-products of azo dyes, which are a diverse and extensively used group of organic dyes. Azo dyes are used in special paints, printing inks, varnishes and adhesives, and can be found in many products such as textiles, cosmetics, personal care products, plastics, and also in food contact material.
In order to ensure public safety and product efficacy, the cosmetics and personal care industry is highly regulated. Therefore, manufacturers who use feedstock materials such as PAAs in the production of their products must monitor and quantify various regulated parameters, such as the presence or absence of PAAs.
Many previously used methods for PAA analysis lack robustness, selectivity and sensitivity, and require lengthy, costly, and time-consuming pre-treatments (derivatization, SPE).
This application note describes an accurate, fast, and robust alternative method for the rapid analysis of PAAs in cosmetic and personal care products, using the ACQUITY UPLC H-Class System coupled with the ACQUITY QDa Detector, and controlled by Empower 3 Software.