Waters Gradient Calculator  
Method 1
Method 2
System Dwell Volumes (mL)
ID (mm)
  Length (mm)        
Particle Size (um)
Flow rate (mL/min)
Override Prep Flow Rate
Enter Method 1 Gradient
Calculated Method 2 Gradient
Time Flow %A %B
Time Flow %A %B
[No canvas support]
Solvent use per Gradient
A B Total
Method 1
Method 2
How to Calculate System Dwell Volume
Version date: 17.335 MKB
© Waters Corporation 2017
© Waters Corporation 2017
Gradient Method Optimization
Method 1
Method 2
System Dwell Volumes (mL)
I.D. (mm)
Length (mm)
L/dp ratio*
Particle size (µm)
Flow Rate (mL/min)
Inj Vol (uL)
Mass Load (mg)
Solvent Name
% Organic 
Temperature (oC)
Isocratic Solvent Viscosity (cP)
Isocratic Backpressure (column only)
Max Solvent viscosity (cP)
Max Gradient Backpressure (column only)
Column Volume (mL)
Available Column Volume (Vo) (mL)
System Dwell Volume in Col Vol (mL)
Gradient Time (Return to Initial) (min)
Injector cycle time (min)
Column Equilibration (Usually 3-5 column volumes)
System Equilibration (Usually 2-5 system volumes)
Column Equilibration time (min)
System Equilibration time (min)
Total Equiibration Time (min)
Injection to Injection Cycle Time (min)
Runs per Hour
Runs per Day (24 hrs)
Version date: 17.31
*To keep the same resolution (Rs) between 
© Waters Corporation 2017
Methods 1&2 adjust for the same L/dp ratio